Live simply. Love generously. Care deeply. Speak kindly.

This selection reflects the last 25 years of my published work. One theme is consistent across this work: an unwavering path toward the opportunities that empower the poor to improve their conditions.

See also: thecosa.org website for more articles, videos, and publications
See also Google Scholar Citations

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  1. 1 Sustainable Global Value Chains (Edited textbook, Springer 2019)
  2. 2 A Review of Evidence and Perspectives on Sustainable Global Value Chains
    Daniele Giovannucci, Berthold Hansmann, Dmitry Palekhov and Michael Schmidt. 2019. Editorial Review of Evidence and Perspectives on Sustainable Global Value Chains. Lead chapter in: Schmidt M., Giovannucci D., Palekhov D. and Hansmann B. (Eds.) Sustainable Global Value Chains. Vol. 2 Natural Resource Management in Transition. Springer-Verlag. Berlin.

    Abstract
    Value chains – defined as the full range of people, inputs, and activities required to bring a product or service from conception through transformation and transportation to consumers and final disposal  – are a vital part of how our world operates, yet we are only beginning to understand how to make them sustainable. In the intrinsically complex world of sustainability, there is clear consensus that to achieve sustainability, multidimensionality must be addressed and so must the critical role of the private sector. The textbook that this chapter introduces, presents a broad array of options for understanding and managing the complexity of sustainability initiatives that affect value chains and trade.

    We have selected 38 chapters and more than 50 authors from among a broad array of experts that provide an overview of the key issues necessary to both understand and drive sustainable global value chains with key case studies and perspectives on the many ways to undertake their transformation. The chapter begins with sections assessing new trends in the sustainability agenda, from both political and private sector perspectives. This includes the diverse perspectives of governance from SDGs to regulation to private standards. We then discuss the emergent and critical value of the availability and understanding of innovative and tested approaches to monitoring and evaluating so as to more effectively manage the progress towards sustainability. Selected initiatives are reviewed to offer concrete outlooks into some of the major approaches by sector. We also examine some future outlooks from several authors who argue that much has changed in the last decade and present an array of new tools that can functionally support the emerging value chain transformations towards greater inclusiveness, clarity, positive returns on investment (ROI), and sustainability.

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  3. 3 Performance Monitoring: An Agile New Tool for Facilitating Sustainability in Value Chains.
    Jessica Mullan (COSA), Heather Esper (William Davidson Institute (WDI) at the University of Michigan) and Daniele Giovannucci (COSA). 2019. Performance Monitoring: An Agile New Tool for Facilitating Sustainability in Value Chains. In Schmidt M., Giovannucci D., Palekhov D. and Hansmann B. (Eds.) Sustainable Global Value Chains. Natural Resource Management in Transition, Vol. 2. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

    Abstract
    Among the many organizations that invest in sustainability programs and projects, the extent of sustainability measurement is often limited to data concerning the output of the intervention itself (i.e., services provided, number of people trained, etc.). Collecting this information alone obscures a true understanding of the sustainability performance of interventions. Thus, providing services is hardly sufficient; it is necessary to know if those services are utilized and to what extent they are providing the intended benefits. As a solution, COSA and WDI have advanced the use of technically functional Performance Monitoring tools within diverse supply chains countries in order to provide simple information feedback loops to management and low-cost tracking of sustainability performance during, rather than after, the investment or project lifespan.

    This chapter distills the benefits and key features of Performance Monitoring while also presenting case study evidence of their broad application potential (Mondelēz International and Danone) and an overview of how the system can be operationalized within a supply chain.

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  4. 4 A Perfect Brew: Leveraging Intangible Capital to Move up the Coffee Value Chain. Harvard Kennedy School Sustainability Science Program Working Paper (2018)
    Hamdan-Livramento, Intan, Luis Samper, Daniele Giovannucci, Luciana Viera Marques and Calestous Juma. 2018. A Perfect Brew: Leveraging Intangible Capital to Move up the Coffee Value Chain. Sustainability Science Program Working Paper 2018-01. Sustainability Science Program, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Online at: https://www.hks.harvard.edu/centers/mrcbg/programs/sustsci/documents/2018-01

    Abstract
    Coffee is one of the most important traded agricultural commodities. Produced in the global south but consumed mainly in the global north, coffee’s global value chain is thus heavily influenced by consumers in high income countries. However, newer consumption patterns are triggering a change in the coffee business model. Coffee aficionados who are interested not only in the quality of the coffee they consume but also in knowing how their coffee is farmed and whether growers are receiving a fair income, are driving changes in trade. This paper examines how new preferences for coffee consumption are reshaping some of its global value chains, and how this change offers an opportunity for coffee growers to earn more income by catering to this new consumption trend. It provides important insights into how agrarian economies could invest and cultivate their intangible assets to enhance their value chain participation and improve their competitiveness in international trade.

  5. 5 Coffee: How consumer Choices are Reshaping the Global Value Chain. (World Intellectual Property Organization 2017)
    Luis Fernando Samper, Daniele Giovannucci and Luciana Marques-Vieira. 2017. Coffee: How consumer Choices are Reshaping the Global Value Chain. In World Intellectual Property Report 2017 Annual (Chapter 2). World Intellectual Property Organization. Geneva.

    Abstract
    Coffee is one of the most important internationally traded commodities. Most of the ca. USD 200 billion value that coffee generates globally accrues to brands, retailers, and supply chain operators; yet most of the risks are borne by the producers in origin countries. The value appropriation is significantly defined by intangibles associated with technology, design and branding as well as access to distribution channels. Now there is evidence that in the more dynamic market segments, several intangibles can be utilized to not only improve grower value but also increase the total value of the industry.

    This paper highlights how the conditions associated with innovative consumption trends and logistical abilities (from origin through to retail) can enable the marketing of highly differentiated products that embed unique intellectual property of the origin. The implications are far reaching and include: a) new opportunities for coffee growing communities to improve their incomes; b) effects on the strategic direction of more vibrant and diverse global value chains; and c)  lessons that likely apply to other consumer-facing commodities as well.

    The paper describes the role that intangible assets play for the origin communities of many agriculture products and the potential role of intellectual property tools in creating and retaining value, as well as providing economic upgrade options.

     

  6. 6 Rural Energy: A Practical Primer for Productive Applications.
    ESMAP Department World Bank. Jerry Weingart and Daniele Givoannucci. 2004.

    Abstract:
    Lack of access to reliable and affordable electricity services in rural areas significantly diminishes the opportunities for the development of many economically productive activities, including irrigation, agro-enterprise, and fishing. Reliable and affordable energy is a vital input to many agricultural and post-harvest processes. Adding energy to agricultural production and processing is an important way to grow beyond subsistence farming and the selling of raw materials toward the potential of added value. Fortunately, there are decentralized and commercially proven energy alternatives including those that harness renewable energy. Many of these are now technically and financially viable, even in remote rural areas. This learning tool provides an overview of these technologies and their appropriate applications in the field, and includes best practice examples used on a significant scale in agriculture, aquaculture, fishing, and related enterprises (e.g., food processing) in many developing countries. It explores necessary considerations in the choice of energy and how such projects could be formulated and executed.

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  7. 7 The powerful role of intangibles in the coffee value chain. (World Intellectual Property Organization 2017).
    Luis Fernando Samper, Daniele Giovannucci and Luciana Marques-Vieira. 2017. The Powerful Role of Intangibles in the Coffee Value Chain. WIPO Economic Research Working Paper No. 39. World Intellectual Property Organization. Geneva.

    Abstract
    Coffee is one of the most important internationally traded commodities. Most of the ca. USD 200 billion value that coffee generates globally accrues to brands, retailers, and supply chain operators; yet most of the risks are borne by the producers in origin countries. The value appropriation is significantly defined by intangibles associated with technology, design and branding as well as access to distribution channels. Now there is evidence that in the more dynamic market segments, several intangibles can be utilized to not only improve grower value but also increase the total value of the industry.

    This paper highlights how the conditions associated with innovative consumption trends and logistical abilities (from origin through to retail) can enable the marketing of highly differentiated products that embed unique intellectual property of the origin. The implications are far reaching and include: a) new opportunities for coffee growing communities to improve their incomes; b) effects on the strategic direction of more vibrant and diverse global value chains; and c)  lessons that likely apply to other consumer-facing commodities as well.

    The paper describes the role that intangible assets play for the origin communities of many agriculture products and the potential role of intellectual property tools in creating and retaining value, as well as providing economic upgrade options.

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  8. 8 Ethical Commodities: Issues in Their Production, Credibility, and Trade. . (Reference Module in Food Sciences, 2016 Elsevier)
    Daniele Giovannucci & Jason Potts. 2016. Ethical Commodities: Issues in Their Production, Credibility, and Trade. Reference Module in Food Sciences, Elsevier

    Abstract
    The production and trade of commodities designated as ethical or sustainable has grown exponentially in recent years. Historically, it has been the purview of governmental policies and international agreements to foster and support products and services that increase sustainability. In recent years, however, parts of that role have been substantially undertaken by markets and civil society in the form of corporate social responsibility initiatives and voluntary standards or ecolabels. These efforts have grown rapidly in commodities such as palm oil, sugar, cotton, cocoa, and coffee over the past two decades. However, the future of these voluntary standards is unclear since, on the one hand, they depend largely on consumer trust but, on the other hand, are based on limited evidence and on systems of compliance that can be fragile.

    To date, governments have largely taken a laissez faire stance, expecting that such market-based initiatives would or should be managed exclusively via market forces. As these initiatives become increasingly widespread investors and policy makers are being forced to reflect on the relative efficacy of voluntary approaches. Is there a case for leveraging such standards for development objectives like the Sustainable Development Goals or as tools to facilitate more effective policy and to improve or complement some aspects of the regulatory environment?

    Answering this will depend on a robust, evidence-based understanding of the potential effectiveness and Return on Investment (ROI) of voluntary standards in comparison to competing initiatives in promoting and managing transformative change across commodity supply chains. Advances in data collection and assessment are already setting the stage for more strategic approaches and the understanding of best practices.

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  9. 9 Meeting Sustainability Goals: Voluntary Sustainability Standards and the Role of the Government – Published commentaries on Flagship Report of the United Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards (2016)
  10. 10 How New Metrics for Sustainable Agriculture Can Align the Roles of Government and Business. (UN Global Sustainable Development Report Science Briefs 2015)
    Daniele Giovannucci and Friedrich von Kirchbach. 2015. How New Metrics for Sustainable Agriculture Can Align the Roles of Government and Business. UN Global Sustainable Development Report Science Briefs 2015

    Abstract
    The private sector has great potential to make a difference in sustainable development but is misaligned with government in speed, intent, and understanding. Comparing the insights of a former ITC Director and the co-founder of COSA, we conclude that having credible science-based metrics in common would go a long way to aligning roles and moving toward tangible results in many areas and topics of the SDGs.

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  11. 11 An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture.(2015 Conservation Biology)
    Jeffrey C. Milder, Margaret Arbuthnot, Allen Blackman, Sharon E. Brooks, Daniele Giovannucci, Lee Gross, Elizabeth T. Kennedy, Kristin Komives, Eric F. Lambin, Audrey Lee, Daniel Meyer, Peter Newton, Ben Phalan, Götz Schroth, Bambi Semroc, Henk Van Rikxoort, Michal Zrust. 2015. Conservation Biology 29(2), 309-320

    Abstract 
    Sustainability standards and certification serve to differentiate and provide market recognition to goods produced in accordance with social and environmental good practices, typically including practices to protect biodiversity. Such standards have seen rapid growth, including in tropical agricultural commodities such as cocoa, coffee, palm oil, soybeans, and tea. Given the role of sustainability standards in influencing land use in hotspots of biodiversity, deforestation, and agricultural intensification, much could be gained from efforts to evaluate and increase the conservation payoff of these schemes. To this end, we devised a systematic approach for monitoring and evaluating the conservation impacts of agricultural sustainability standards and for using the resulting evidence to improve the effectiveness of such standards over time.

    The approach is oriented around a set of hypotheses and corresponding research questions about how sustainability standards are predicted to deliver conservation benefits. These questions are addressed through data from multiple sources, including basic common information from certification audits; field monitoring of environmental outcomes at a sample of certified sites; and rigorous impact assessment research based on experimental or quasi‐experimental methods. Integration of these sources can generate time‐series data that are comparable across sites and regions and provide detailed portraits of the effects of sustainability standards. To implement this approach, we propose new collaborations between the conservation research community and the sustainability standards community to develop common indicators and monitoring protocols, foster data sharing and synthesis, and link research and practice more effectively. As the role of sustainability standards in tropical land‐use governance continues to evolve, robust evidence on the factors contributing to effectiveness can help to ensure that such standards are designed and implemented to maximize benefits for biodiversity conservation.

  12. 12 The Economics of Fair Trade.(2014 Journal of Economic Perspectives)
    Raluca Dragusanu (Harvard), Daniele Giovannucci (COSA) and Nathan Nunn (Harvard). 2014. The Economics of Fair Trade. Journal of Economic Perspectives 28(3), 217-36 and NBER Working Paper No. w20357.

    Abstract
    Fair Trade is a labeling initiative aimed at improving the lives of the poor in developing countries by offering better terms to producers and helping them to organize. We provide a critical overview of the economic theory behind Fair Trade, describing the potential benefits and potential pitfalls. We also provide an assessment of the empirical evidence of the impacts of Fair Trade to date.

  13. 13 The COSA Measuring Sustainability Report: Cocoa and Coffee in 12 Countries (2014 Committee on Sustainability Assessment)
    Daniele Giovannucci (Committee on Sustainability Assessment - COSA), Sara J. Scherr (EcoAgriculture Partners), Danielle Nierenberg (Nourishing the Planet), Charlotte Hebebrand (International Food and Agriculture Trade Policy Council), Julie Shapiro (The Keystone Center), Jeffrey Milder, Keith Wheeler (The Foundation for Our Future). The Sustainable Development in the 21st century (SD21) Report for Rio+20, New York: United Nations, 2012

    The Committee on Sustainability Assessment (COSA), joined by leading global firms and development agencies, launches its landmark “The COSA Measuring Sustainability Report”. The report illuminates the salient findings from nearly 18,000 surveys between 2009 to 2013 in Africa, Asia and Latin America for coffee and cocoa – two important commodities that are bellwethers for sustainability trends in other crops.

    The COSA Measuring Sustainability Report is a result of COSA’s seven year journey to evolve a common set of practical indicators and metrics in collaboration with many organizations and experts. It presents a compelling combination of surprising findings, unexpected results, and lessons learned.

  14. 14 Corporate Social Responsibility and the Role of Voluntary Sustainability Standards. In Voluntary Standards Systems – A Contribution to Sustainable Development. (2014 Springer Publishing)
  15. 15 The Guide to Developing Agricultural Markets and Agro-enterprises.
    Editor of multivolume online database

    Abstract
    On our current trajectory, severe disruptions to national and regional food systems are highly likely to happen – the main question is when. This report, commissioned by the UN DESA as a strategic input to SD21 and the Rio discussions, focuses on vital areas and offers a collection of up to date information on the current and likely trends for our global Food and Agriculture systems.
    With contributions from more than 70 global agri-food leaders in the business, policy, green, and social arenas, the report exposes unforeseen areas of consensus. By opening the silos of partisan thinking to invite reasoned discussion, it also exposes areas of disagreement and lays out a key set of specific “high impact” areas where smart decisions will make the most difference for sustainable and resilient food and agriculture systems.

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  16. 16 Food and Agriculture: The Future of Sustainability (2012 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable Development)

    Abstract:
    On our current trajectory, severe disruptions to national and regional food systems are highly likely to happen – the main question is when. This report, commissioned by the UN DESA as a strategic input to SD21 and the Rio discussions, focuses on vital areas and offers a collection of up to date information on the current and likely trends for our global Food and Agriculture systems.

    With contributions from more than 70 global agri-food leaders in the business, policy, green, and social arenas, the report exposes unforeseen areas of consensus. By opening the silos of partisan thinking to invite reasoned discussion, it also exposes areas of disagreement and lays out a key set of specific “high impact” areas where smart decisions will make the most difference for sustainable and resilient food and agriculture systems.

    PDF
  17. 17 Trends in the Trade of Certified Coffees (2010 International Trade Centre)
    Joost Pierrot (Joost Pierrot Consultancy), Daniele Giovannucci (Committee on Sustainability Assessment - COSA), Alexander Kasterine (International Trade Centre - ITC). International Trade Centre Technical Paper, 2010

    Abstract
    The coffee segment that is known as sustainable has grown much faster than nearly any other industry segment in the past decade. It is difficult to understand both the market trends and the impacts of these coffees and it is therefore difficult for producers, industry and even consumers to make rational decisions. This paper consolidates the best available data on the global trade volumes for all of the certified (or verified) coffee in the past decade and the distribution by major geographic regions.

    Link
  18. 18 National Trade Promotion Organizations: their role and functions.
    World Bank. Daniele Giovannucci. 2000.

    Abstract
    Although trade promotion organizations (TPOs) can be a cost-effective tool for developing trade and exports, their usefulness varies significantly from country to country. The author reviews the principles of establishing and structuring successful TPOs, clarifies their roles and defines their specific functions.

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Poverty is not natural. It is man-made and can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings. Overcoming poverty is not a gesture charity. It is an act of justice. Nelson Mandela

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  1. 19 The North American Organic Coffee Industry Report 2010 (2010 Specialty Coffee Association of America)
  2. 20 Defining and Marketing “Local” Foods: Geographical Indications for US Products (2010 The Journal of World Intellectual Property)
    Daniele Giovannucci (Committee on Sustainability Assessment - COSA), Elizabeth Barham (University of Missouri at Columbia - College of Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources), Rich Pirog (Iowa State University - College of Agriculture). Journal of World Intellectual Property, 2010

    Abstract
    In light of the increasing interest in the economic and socio-political impacts of the trend, it is important to ask what are local foods? If you do not know your local producer, then how can you know whether the product you are purchasing is local? These questions are at the heart of an emerging debate in the U.S. about authenticity and the value of local eating. From the menus of its elite restaurants, to urban farmer markets, to the procurement strategy of its largest corporation, is fast becoming an important food category in the U.S. Several distinct forces drive its popularity and yet, in the absence of certain credence attributes to assure what indeed is local, its future is uncertain and a challenge for both producers and consumers.
    This paper explores what defines why it may be important in a shifting globalized economy, and how the term is protected in trade. It suggests that Intellectual Property protection is underdeveloped to foster local food product designations. Cases in the U.S. illustrate that some mechanisms do exist to ensure the specific provenance of a food but that these present some notable challenges for both producers and consumers. Improving approaches to Geographical Indications in the US, perhaps learning from the sui generis systems in other countries, could further the development, protection, and success of local products.

  3. 21 Is Coffee the Most Popular Organic Crop? (2010 The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends)
  4. 22 A Brief Understanding of Hunger and its Resolution (2009 Daniele Giovannucci)
  5. 23 Papua New Guinea: Strategic Assessment of the Coffee Sector (2009 World Bank and European Development Fund for ACP States)
    Daniele Giovannucci and John Hunt, 2009

    Abstract
    Coffee is one of PNG’s most important crops, involving about a third of the population. Yet it is neither sufficiently remunerative nor efficient and overall production trends have declined for a decade. This strategic review identifies and prioritizes the key activities that are most likely to directly improve the performance and sustainability of the PNG coffee sector.

    Its intrinsic production, processing and transport conditions mean that it is unlikely to be competitive in the provision of commodity-grade coffee. Instead, its best opportunities lie in the growing global trends toward quality and differentiation. The limited incentives available for producers make it difficult for any policies to influence production and thus exports. Advances will require more than public initiatives and should focus on private sector participation.

    Research indicates four key areas of focus that will realistically leverage the most improvement in producer livelihoods and their sustainability: a) Institution building to provide producer group strengthening, market information, and sustainability initiatives; b) Extension and training that is demand-driven and performance-oriented; c) Finance for productive investments, including for those outside the typical scope of formal banking; and d) Infrastructure directly affecting the quality of coffee and its efficient marketing.

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  6. 24 Guide to Geographical Indications: Linking Products and Their Origins (2009 International Trade Centre)

    A brief introduction to the key issues of Geographical Indications and to the Guide to GIs for developing countries.

    Geographical Indications present significant opportunities for differentiating products or services that are uniquely related to their geographic origin. While they can offer many positive economic, social, cultural, and even environmental benefits, they can also be problematic and therefore caution is warranted when pursuing them.

    The publication distills the relevant lessons that could apply, particularly to developing countries, from a review of more than 200 documents and a number of original Case Studies.

    It presents a groundwork to better understand the costs and the benefits of undertaking Geographical Indications by outlining the basic processes, covering the pros and cons of different legal instruments, and offering insights into the important factors of success.

    It reviews and presents current data on the key issues of global GIs such as: economic results, public and private benefits; and market relevance.

  7. 25 The North American Organic Coffee Industry Report 2008 (2008 Specialty Coffee Association of America)
    Daniele Giovannucci

    Abstract
    The more than US$ 1 billion market value of Organic coffee makes this the single most important Organic product imported into North America. The “North American Organic Coffee Industry Report” includes information from the only annual survey of the industry and reveals total volumes and estimated value as well as which nations are supplying the global market, the price of organic coffee at origin, and the changes in price premiums paid to producers. In the U.S. and Canada, where organic sales are estimated to have reached close to US$21 billion in 2007, Organic coffee imports showed a considerable change in both volume and value.

    In addition to the numbers, the report succinctly covers expected trends, presents industry projections for organics, and outlines the 3 factors that appear to be driving consumer interest. For 2008 the Report offers some basic indications for other certified coffees and also points out why Organic coffee is unique among all the coffee certifications in today’s market.

    The concise report is written like an in-depth, executive summary. It features data and interviews gathered through the end of 2007 and into early 2008. The annual survey of the industry, on which the report is partly based, has a response rate that represents nearly all of the Organic green coffee imports to North America and thus offers one of the most realistic set of estimates each year.

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  8. 26 The North American Organic Coffee Industry Report 2009 (2009 Specialty Coffee Association of America)
  9. 27 Markets and Geographical Indications of Origin:Synthesis of terra madre gathering and e-forum. (2008 Latin-American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP)
    With Claudia Ranaboldo

    A 6 page summary of the Main Themes of Discussion by the Terra Madre conference participants and the E-Forum with 950 visits by people from around the world.

  10. 28 Seeking Sustainability: COSA Preliminary Analysis of Sustainability Initiatives in the Coffee Sector (2008 Committee on Sustainability Assessment)
    International Institute for Sustainable Development. Daniele Giovannucci, Jason Potts, et al. (2008)

    Abstract:
    The growing economic value and consumer popularity of sustainability standards inevitably raise questions about the extent to which their structure and dynamics actually address many environmental, economic and public welfare issues. The Committee on Sustainable Assessment (COSA) was formed, in part, to develop a scientifically credible framework capable of assessing the impacts associated with the adoption of sustainability initiatives. This paper examines the pilot phase of vetting and testing the COSA method, an innovative management tool used to gather and analyze data using economic, environmental and social metrics.

  11. 29 How New Agrifood Standards are Affecting Trade(2008 Trade – What If? New Challenges in Export Development. World Export Development Forum)
    In Trade - What If? New Challenges in Export Development (Pgs 99-114). World Export Development Forum. Daniele Giovannucci.

    Abstract:
    This brief review of the most important standards for agrifood trade reveal that they have become increasingly ubiquitous. Yet, their requirements and benefits can be anything but straightforward for many producers in developing countries. Producers and exporters face five key challenges when conforming to these standards. Effective long-term solutions will involve a greater public role particularly to improve knowledge management, transparency and a measure of harmonization.

  12. 30 Standards and Agricultural Trade in Asia(2008 Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Daniele Giovannucci and Timothy Purcell.

    Abstract:
    The markets for agri-food products are changing at a pace that is unparalleled in modern history. Markets are increasingly open and increasingly homogenized toward international tastes and requirements for levels of quality, packaging, safety, and even process attributes such as socially or environmentally friendly methods. New distribution channels, dominated by larger firms including supermarket retailers, are imposing high performance demands on their value chains. In order to respond to these increasing demands, developing countries are facing an inexorable shift toward more industrialized models of farming systems. This shift presents new challenges for small and medium farmers’ access to markets and their ability to compete. The question for many countries—and not just developing countries—is what options are there for small farmers, which still comprise the great majority of the world’s agricultural producers?

  13. 31 Adding Value: Certified Coffee Trade in North America. (2008 Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN)
    With Alice Byers and Pascal Liu (Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. Rome 2008).

    Abstract
    Coffee is the leading agricultural sector in terms of both the number and frequent use of social and environmental certification. This fast-growing category of certified sustainable coffees has emerged from almost negligible quantities in the late 1990s to approximately 4% of global green coffee exports in 2006 making it a multi-billion dollar segment of the industry. The US and Canada account for over one quarter of global coffee imports in value. Their consumers are increasingly attentive to the social, economic, and environmental aspects of coffee production as evidenced by the significant expansion of certified coffees into both gourmet and mass market channels. This chapter covers the market development and current statistics of all the certified sustainable coffees in North America including volumes, value, premiums, and their general trends at the global level.

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  14. 32 Value-adding Standards in the North American Food Market - Trade Opportunities in Certified Products for Developing Countries. (2008 Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN)
    Pascal Liu (Ed.), Alice Byers, and Daniele Giovannucci (FAO. Rome 2008).

    Abstract: 
    This publication analyzes the use of voluntary standards and certification schemes in the food markets of the United States and Canada. With its large population and its high individual purchasing power, North America provides considerable opportunities for developing country exports of value‑added agricultural products. Consumers are increasingly attentive to the social and environmental aspects of food production as evidenced by the significant expansion of certified food sales in both natural food stores and mainstream supermarket chains. The publication assesses the volumes, trends, and market opportunities for the most popular voluntary standards and focuses on environmental and social certification schemes such as organic and fair‑trade that use a registered on‑product label targeting consumers. Tropical fruits, coffee, and cocoa are the main product categories examined.

  15. 33 The State of Organic Coffee: 2006 US Update (2006 The Sustainable Markets Intelligence Center)
  16. 34 UN Trade and Environment Review –published expert commentaries (2006 UNCTAD)

"Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts." A sign in Albert Einstein's office

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  1. 35 Food Quality Issues: understanding HACCP and other quality management techniques (2006 The World Bank)
    VirtualPRO, the on-line journal of Industrial Processes Engineering at: www.revistavirtualpro.com Daniele Giovannucci and Morton Satin 2001 & republished 2006. (English and Espanol)

    Abstract: 
    A basic understanding of food quality issues in developing countries and introduces the reader to HACCP, its evolution, and other dominant methodologies for improving food quality.

  2. 36 Salient Trends in Organic Standards: the Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries (2006 World Bank Institute – USAID)
  3. 37 Análisis Prospectivo de Política Cafetalera (Mexico national strategy 2006 Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN)
    Giovannucci, Daniele y Ricardo Juárez Cruz. 2006.

    Abstract
    El sector cafetalero mexicano enfrenta distintos retos en materia de competitividad: sufre de un bajo nivel de rentabilidad en las fincas; los productores han respondido cada vez más a su baja rentabilidad por medio de la reducción del uso de insumos y mano de obra; y la calidad genérica del café de México ha disminuido en los últimos ciclos. Sin embargo, la cafeticultura mexicana tiene fortalezas que deben ser aprovechadas. Tiene fácil acceso a mercados lucrativos con fuertes y antiguos vínculos, principalmente en los EEUU y tiene un fuerte potencial de consumo en su mercado interno.Tiene un potencial considerable de calidad. México ha sido pionero y líder productor de cafés especiales y diferenciados tal como cafe orgánico y comercio justo. Existe un sinnúmero de organizaciones de productores que exportan directamente.

    Al analizar la estructura productiva de México – concentrada en los pequeños productores con altos costos de produccion y poca infraestructura – hay que concluir que la ventaja competitiva de México en el futuro no estará en la producción convencional. Las mejores oportunidades para los productores mexicanos apuntan hacia los cafés diferenciados. Sin embargo, la realidad del sector es que la mayoría de la producción no es ?diferenciada? y por consiguiente, ese segmento de la producción necesitará diferentes estrategias.

    Después de cincuenta años de tutela gubernamental, se ha avanzado muy poco pero los modestos resultados no se explican por la falta de recursos públicos. La política cafetalera a futuro, exige que sea el sector productivo quien toma el liderazgo y sea corresponsable de las acciones y de su financiamiento, como ocurre en los paises lìderes del sector.

    La competitividad de México y el bienestar de sus productores no se desarrollará apelando a su dotación de recursos naturales o sus precios bajos, sino con la capacidad de sus instituciones para ser innovadores y ágiles en su interacción con el mercado y sustentable en la formulación y aplicación de sus políticas publicas-privadas.

  4. 38 Moving Yemen Coffee Forward: Assessment of the Coffee Industry in Yemen to Sustainably Improve Incomes and Expand Trade (USAID 2005)
    Researched and written by Daniele Giovannucci, produced for the United States Agency for International Development and prepared with ARD, Inc. in December 2005.

    Abstract
    Yemen is one of the most unique and most storied coffees in the world. This assessment analyses the production, processing, and trade of Yemen’s coffee; the result of a broad assessment across most of the nation’s producing regions. It’s purpose is to identify the available opportunities and the existing constraints for increasing sustainability and improving coffee incomes. It identifies the key leverage points based on an assessment of local issues such as trade structures and water limitations as well as international trends and trade issues and suggests a series of sequenced and concrete interventions.

     

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  5. 39 Organic Agriculture and Poverty Reduction in Asia (2005 International Fund for Agricultural Development)
  6. 40 Organic agriculture: a trade and sustainable development opportunity for developing countries. (2006 Trade and Environment Review UNCTAD)
    In the 2006 Trade and Environment Review. Geneva: UNCTAD. Sophia Twarog with commentary by Daniele Giovannucci, Gunnar Rundgren, and others. 2006.
  7. 41 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam Coffee Sector Report 2005 World Bank)
    World Bank Report No. 29358-VN. Daniele Giovannucci, Bryan Lewin, Rob Swinkels. 2005. (English and Vietnamese)

    Abstract
    Vietnam’s meteoric rise to become one of the world’s largest coffee producers in world-record time has been matched by equally fast changes in policies and market structure. It has moved from a planned economy to a much more open market orientation and become one of Asia’s fastest-growing economies. While many benefits can be attributed to the coffee sector’s growth, there are also questions about how equitable the socioeconomic impact has been and about the overall sustainability of the sector. This paper offers a thorough look at the functions and trends of the sector within the enlightening context of its history and fundamental structure.

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  8. 42 Realizing Azerbaijan’s Comparative Advantages in Agriculture (2005 National Strategy World Bank)
  9. 43 The Collective Formulation and Effectiveness of Public & Private Sustainability Standards(2005 Food Policy Journal)
    Daniele Giovannucci and Stefano Ponte. 2005.

    Abstract: 
    In the former age of national capitalism, a measure of “market fairness” was embedded in a normative framework generated by government, labor unions, and perhaps religious authority. In the current age of global capitalism, new actors such as NGOs, industry associations and public –private partnerships provide the normative framework that corporations use for “social legitimacy”. In this context, certain standard-setting processes operate as new forms of “social contract ” where the state, rather than being directly involved between the parties, may provide a form of basic guarantee while (more or less accountable) NGOs and firms are in charge of hammering out the bargains. This article examines the dynamics of this new configuration through the case study of “sustainability ” initiatives in the coffee sector. It addresses four questions:(1) Are these standards effective in communicating information and creating new markets? (2) To what extent do they embed elements of collective and private interests? (3) Is “sustainability” content actually delivered to their intended beneficiaries? and (4)What is the role of public policy in addressing the shortcomings?

  10. 44 Overview of Key Development and Trade Issues Emerging in Armenia and the Opportunities and Constraints of Organic Agriculture(2005 World Bank)
  11. 45 Energy: A Practical Primer for Productive Applications (2004 ESMAP Department of the World Bank)
  12. 46 Desarrollo de Territorios Rurales con Identidad Cultural.Agricultural Systems: Environmentally-Friendly Coffee in El Salvador and Mexico.

    Rimisp, el Centro Latinoamericano para el Desarrollo Rural maneja uno de los mas importantes proyectos sobre IG y su aporte al desarollo. Este Proyecto busca contribuir al diseño y desarrollo de políticas, estrategias y métodos que estimulen la valorización de territorios rurales en base a sus activos culturales, contribuyendo a dinámicas territoriales sostenibles y posicionando la temática de desarrollo territorial rural con identidad cultural a nivel regional.

  13. 47 Organic farming as a tool for productivity and poverty reduction in Asia.
    Daniele Giovannucci for the IFAD/NACF Joint workshop, Seoul, 13-16 March 2007.

    Abstract:
    This concise synthesis paper is based on some recent developments and primarily on an IFAD evaluation of small farmer experiences of organic projects under different conditions in Asia – led by this author. It briefly reviews key issues ranging from the adequacy of fertilizers, labor, and plant protection to important considerations about certification and marketing. It finds significant evidence that organic methods could be favorable for small farmers but that the immediate impact on the farmer differs depending on the organizational support available and whether the farmer transitions to organics from traditional low-input methods or from conventional and more intensive methods of production. Some of the related externalities, including resource conservation and soil fertility, may be even more valuable in the long run. Evidence also indicates that the organic supply chains of processing and trade also earn more money. The paper considers that further growth and meeting the demands of increasingly mainstream distribution channels such as supermarkets will nevertheless be difficult for most producers and will require both the effective organization of small farmers and a combination of well-targeted public and private support especially in terms of research, extension, and market development.

  14. 48 Best Practices for Organic Policy: What developing country Governments can do to promote the organic agriculture sector.
    Authored by Gunnar Rundgren with contributions from Patricio Parra, Felicia Echeverria, Mette Meldgaard, M. Yousri Hashem, Ong Kung Wai, Raymond Auerbach, and Vitoon Panyakuul. Published by UNCTAD in 2007

    Abstract: 
    This report offers practical guidance for the development of appropriate organic sector policies.  Its recommendations are based on the experiences of one of the most knowledgeable thinkers in the world of organics and drawn from decades of work in the field and from seven developing country cases.

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  1. 49 Organic Agriculture and Poverty Reduction in Asia (2005 Thematic Evaluation IFAD)
    IFAD. Daniele Giovannucci. 2005. (English and part in Chinese)

    Abstract: 
    This evaluation captures the small farmer’s experiences of organic projects in different climactic regions and under different conditions. It uses recent research and examples, drawn primarily from the work of a team of nine researchers on 14 case studies in China and India as well as reviews of several other countries and more than 100 related studies and documents. The report reviews the characteristics of organic production and organic markets as well as the impact of organic methods.

    Its purpose is to draw concise lessons to help understand the processes that have led small farmers to diversify into organic agriculture and to identify the nature of the causal or contributing relationships — whether negative or positive — of government agencies, development projects, private companies, and NGOs. It also elaborates on a range of public sector roles and makes recommendations for both strategic approaches as well as specific project design.

    Generally speaking, the evaluation finds that there is significant evidence that organic methods could be favorable for small farmers. In fact, most of the cases clearly noted a number of direct benefits and related externalities from which it is reasonable to conclude that the promotion of organic agriculture methods among small farmers can be well warranted.

  2. 50 Coffee Markets: New Paradigms in Global Supply and Demand. (2004 World Bank)
    World Bank. Bryan Lewin, Daniele Giovannucci, and Panos Varangis. 2004.

    Abstract
    More than 50 nations, almost all in the developing world, produce and export coffee, one of the world’s most valuable traded commodities. Some of these countries are dependent on coffee exports for a very significant portion of their international trade and export income. Between 17 and 20 million families are directly involved in coffee production and most are smallholders utilizing just a few hectares of land. During low price periods, evidence of considerable human hardships in many producing regions confirms coffee’s importance as a primary-and sometimes only-source of cash income for many farmers.

    This study assesses the condition of the world’s coffee production and trade and illuminates the profound structural changes that have occurred in recent years. With ample data and thorough analysis of both production and consumption, it clearly illustrates the new trends in the coffee world. Based on this analysis and considerable experience in the coffee world, the authors offers solutions for reducing the impact of inevitable future price collapses and making coffee a less risky source of income for some of the world’s poorest.

  3. 51 Summary & Documents from Second Donor’s Coffee Workshop (2004 Inter-american Development Bank)
  4. 52 Emerging Issues in the Marketing and Trade of Organic Products.(2003 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
    In Organic Agriculture: Sustainability, Markets, and Policies. Paris: OECD. Daniele Giovannucci. 2003.

    Abstract: 
    The paper begins with a macro view of the shifting regulatory, business, and consumer environments that are inducing fundamental changes in the global trade regime and increasing the demand for standards. This in turn has profound implications especially for small and medium producers. It discusses how in the case of organics, emerging trade standards may actually benefit the producers rather than being a barrier to entry. In order for organics to expand their appeal and enter mainstream distribution channels they will likely have to adapt some aspects of modern industrial agribusiness. However, a more industrialized approach means walking a fine line because this very approach may in some ways contradict the core organic values and risk alienating a loyal customer base. Recent research and examples outline the key issues like certification process, quality, and consistency that will require attention. The paper considers that further growth and meeting these demands and those of mainstream distribution channels will be difficult for most small developing country producers and will require a combination of public and private support.

  5. 53 The State of Sustainable Coffee: A Study of Twelve Major Markets. (2003 International Institute for Sustainable Development)
    International Coffee Organization, International Institute for Sustainable Development and UNCTAD. Daniele Giovannucci and Freek Jan Koekoek. 2003.

    Abstract: 
    The striking emergence of dynamic markets for certified organic, fair trade, and eco-friendly coffees (termed sustainable) firmly place the coffee industry at the forefront of developing innovative responses to the difficulties of rural development and trade. Fair trade, organic, and eco-friendly products are neither a panacea nor the full answer. Nevertheless, they are one of the few bright spots in developing country trade and provide considerable direct benefits to nearly a million coffee producing families that participate. Through strict environmental and social standards, improved governance structures, better communication channels and price premiums, these initiative help in the process of correcting for imperfections in the coffee market. This report reveals the structure and the potential for growth in Europe and Japan. It also reveals the trends and the challenges facing such products.

  6. 54 Coffee in Colombia: The Economic Foundation of Peace. (2003 World Bank)
    In M. Giugale, O. Lafourcade, and C. Luff, eds., Colombia The Economic Foundation of Peace. The World Bank. Daniele Giovannucci with Hector Arévalo, Juan Jose Echavarría, José Leibovich, Bryan Lewin, Santiago Montenegro, Nestor Osorio, Gonzalo Paredes, Diego Pizano, Luis Samper, and Panayotis Varangis. 2003.

    Abstract
    A frank and thorough assessment of what has worked and what has not in one of the world’s most important coffee producing countries. Prepared for the transition of a new federal administration by a team of leading experts from across the spectrum of thinking on the topic.

    The paper succinctly reviews the anatomy and evolution of the sector as one of the drivers of modern Colombian development and then places its current status in the context of emerging market conditions and demands. It diagnoses main sectoral issues including the changing role of the National Federation of Coffee Growers, arguably the world’s pre-eminent coffee institution, to suggest options for its adaptation toward the changing nature of demand and toward increasingly differentiated markets. It closes with a thorough set of policy recommendations to address: competitive foci, accountability , subsidies, smallholders and the rural poor, diversification and risk management.

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  7. 55 Dealing with the Coffee Crisis in Central America: Impacts and Strategies (2003 World Bank)
    World Bank Policy Research #2993. Panos Varangis, Paul Siegel, Daniele Giovannucci and Bryan Lewin. 2003 ESPANOL

    Abstract

    Coffee plays a major economic role in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Central America was among the hardest hit by the recent crisis that saw prices tumble to historic lows and remain there for a prolonged period. The document is a response to the need to understand both the underlying causes and to prepare alternatives in order to avoid a repeat. It points out that changes in supply and demand are structural in nature and imply a slow and only partial recovery of prices. These challenges call for new strategies for the Central American countries. It includes an analysis of the international coffee situation and country specific analyses, and explores options and constraints for increased competitiveness and diversification, and includes chapters dedicated to social, environmental and institutional dimensions of the crisis.

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  8. 56 The Future of Coffee: Lessons from niche markets in North America. (2002 Coffee & Cocoa International)
    Coffee & Cocoa International. Surrey, UK. DMG World Media Vol. 29 No. 1 March 2002. Daniele Giovannucci.

    Abstract
    Highlights opportunities in high-quality and niche coffees that are among the few receiving a more substantial remuneration and providing benefits to producers in difficult markets of low prices. References to some data from recent North American business survey.

  9. 57 Colombia Coffee Sector Study (2002 World Bank)
    Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo Económico (CEDE) de la Universidad de los Andes. Daniele Giovannucci with José Leibovich, Diego Pizano, Gonzalo Paredes, Santiago Montenegro, Hector Arévalo and Panos Varangis. 2002.

    Abstract
    A thorough analysis of the Colombian coffee sector prepared with leading actors that have since taken influential posts in (i.e. gov. minister). This report includes the history, structure, governance and the considerable impacts on poverty and livelihoods of a coffee sector organized like no other in the world.

    It is similar to the work prepared for the transition of a new federal administration but with more detail and published by one of the country’s leading economic institutes at the University of the Andes.

    El documento analiza la evolución del sector cafetero colombiano en la última década, periodo en el cual ha perdido valor. Se hace un diagnóstico de las causas que han generado el retroceso del sector y propone unas estrategias de política para que vuelva a ser competitivo en los mercados internacionales. De las conclusiones se destaca la necesidad de mejorar la eficiencia en la producción para poder competir a precios cada día mas bajos en el mercado mundial, se propone una estrategia para desarrollar negocios en los nichos de los llamados cafés especiales a los que se les reconocen primas superiores por parte de los compradores, y en el plano regulatorio se recomienda que la parafiscalidad que afecta al sector sea reformulada para que el impuesto que tributan los cafeteros sea bajo, estable y fijo en el tiempo. Con los recursos que se generen por esta contribución se deberán financiar los programas prioritarios para beneficio de los caficultores. Programas que de manera individual no pueden ser acometidos (Investigación o promoción). El rol de la institucionalidad cafetera deberá ser reformulado. Los recursos del café no deben seguir suplantando los recursos del Estado en obras públicas en las regiones cafeteras, pero la organización cafetera regional puede convertirse en un ejecutor importante de proyectos de inversión con recursos del presupuesto general de la Nación.

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  10. 58 Agribusiness Development in Asia and the Near East: Obstacles and Opportunities. (2002 USAID Sustainable Agricultural and Food Security Conference Manila)
  11. 59 Managing the Competitive Transition of the Coffee Sector in Central America: Coffee Crisis and its Impact(2002 InterAmerican Development Bank, USAID, World Bank)
    This document represents the first joint effort of the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and the United States Agency for International Development to jointly cooperate with Central America governments in resolving the broad socio-economic crisis in the region due to the collapse of coffee prices in the early part of the 2000s. It served as the basis for regional meetings in Antigua, Guatemala (2002) and is not intended as a statement of policy.

    Abstract
    Section I describes the nature of the crisis and its magnitude as seen in the midst of it during 2001-02. Section II examines ways to improve the quality of Central American coffee, as a strategic competitive response to the crisis. Section III focuses on market opportunities and marketing management issues to be considered by coffee growers. Section IV discusses diversification programs as possible alternatives for non-competitive coffee farmers. Section V centers on environmental and social issues of coffee production. Finally, Section VI examines the role of public and private institutions: steps they can take to facilitate the competitive transformation of the coffee sector in the region and efforts to lessen the negative social impacts of the crisis.

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  12. 60 Who Shall We Blame: The international politics of coffee. (2002 Tea and Coffee Trade Journal)
    Tea and Coffee Trade Journal. Vol. 174 No. 1. January 2002. Daniele Giovannucci and Panos Varangis.

    Abstract
    For several years there was a lot of finger pointing and accusations about who was to blame for the the most serious prolonged coffee crisis in history. This brief article sets the record straight with an evidence-based presentation of the market realities and briefly points to some potential avenues for solutions.

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  13. 61 Market Trends: The future of sustainable coffees. (2002 Tea and Coffee Trade Journal)
    Tea and Coffee Trade Journal. Vol. 174 No.2. February 2002. Daniele Giovannucci.

    Abstract
    A brief review of the volume, value and trends for Sustainable Coffees in the North American market and some insights into corresponding trends elsewhere.

  14. 62 The Basics of a Business Plan for Development Professionals (2001 World Bank)
    World Bank. Nick Fante, Daniele Giovannucci, Cheryl Edelson Hanway. 2001

    Abstract
    A business plan is not only for private sector companies that seek financing. It’s rigor encourages a thorough assessment of every important aspect related to the feasibility and sustainability of a project or enterprise. It covers topics that are sometimes overlooked or insufficiently addressed in development projects such as: market orientation; market analyses; detailed operational procedures; intangible assets; and realistic financial projections. Therein lies its value to development initiatives: providing a thorough, private-sector style strategy to help ensure a well-planned and viable project. This covers the basic components and how to formulate one.

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  15. 63 Market Information Services (2001 World Bank)
    World Bank publication in multi-volume series. Daniele Giovannucci with Andrew Shepherd. 2001

    Abstract
    Information is the lifeblood of most market economies. Nevertheless, attempts to jump start information flow by creating Market Information Services (MIS) usually fail. The author brings together experiences and lessons from experts in the field on the reasons for such common failures and what can be done to avoid them. Critical topics such as institutional structure, dissemination methods, and funding are outlined to guide the reader through the basic issues that must be addressed in order to create successful MIS.

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  16. 64 Basic Trade Finance Tools: Payment Methods in International Trade (2001 World Bank)
    World Bank. Daniele Giovannucci. 2002

    Abstract
    The increasing participation of relatively inexperienced enterprises in international trade calls for a concise and jargon-free, general reference to the many ways by which traders can arrange for payments to be made and the relative merits, of each from a risk standpoint. The most common methods i.e. letters of credit, are covered in some detail including examples.

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  17. 65 Sustainable Coffee Survey of the North American Coffee Industry. (2001 Commission for Environmental Cooperation and Specialty Coffee Association of America)
    Jointly published by The Commission for Environmental Cooperation and The Speciality Coffee Association of America. Daniele Giovannucci. 2001 FRANCAIS ESPANOL,

    Abstract
    The first attempt to understand the constraints and conditions of a major market for sustainable coffees. It is still the only effort to directly quantify the actual volumes and value for these coffees in North America. This report is based on structured interviews with 2098 firms and includes an assessment of the availability, the attributes, volume, and the value of such coffees in the US and Canada. It also includes data on the source countries, the premiums paid, and the trends for sustainable coffees.

  18. 66 Fixing the Leaky Bucket: Why Agribusiness Matters.
    In Sustainability of Agricultural Systems in Transition. Madison WI: American Society of Agronomy Journal. May 2001. Daniele Giovannucci.

    Abstract
    As many development agencies and academia continue throughout the 1990s to be mired in a production oriented mindset, this paper sets out a simple argument for valuing post-harvest approaches that can, by reducing losses and adding value, contribute more to farmers than they would gain from modest productivity increases. Paying attention to the entire chain thus helps optimize food security in a sensible manner. The paper very briefly outlines the 4 gaps to achieving this in most countries and suggests some ways forward.

  19. 67 Overview of Key Development and Trade Issues Emerging in Armenia and the Opportunities and Constraints of Organic Agriculture.
    Brief Issues paper prepared by Daniele Giovannucci for International Conference on “Organic Food and Organic Farming in Armenia - Towards Partnership and Sustainable Growth” November 2005.

    Abstract: 
    A brief report offering a basic understanding of the current situation and an overview of the future prospects for organics in Armenia. Organic agriculture and trade is certainly not going to provide the only solution to Armenia’s rural difficulties but it presents a viable approach that can be beneficial for a number of farmers and can also provide some valuable public benefits.

  20. 68 Warehouse Receipts: Facilitating Credit and Commodity Markets. (2000 World Bank)
    World Bank. Daniele Giovannucci, Panos Varangis, Don Larson. 2000

    Abstract
    The lack of access to credit is a severe constraint for many farmers. Warehouse receipts are an important and effective tool for creating liquidity and easing access to credit. Such schemes also offer additional benefits such as providing storage to smoothe the supply and prices in the market, improving grower incomes, and reducing food losses. The paper describes the steps of interaction involved in a warehouse receipt system, sets out the essential questions to be asked regarding the critical conditions for its success and illustrates the roles of the key actors in setting up and running such a system.

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  21. 69 Understanding Grades and Standards - and how to apply them.(2000 World Bank)
    Daniele Giovannucci and Thomas Reardon. World Bank 2000.

    Abstract: 
    With the expanding globalization of trade, grades and standards (G&S) help to set the ‘rules of the game’ whose implications for developing countries are becoming increasingly relevant. While they are clearly important to trade, their formation and utilization is also undergoing a shift from being neutral market lubricants to also being tools of product differentiation. This implies a fundamental shift in the role of G&S from just reducing transaction costs of commodity market participants, to serving as strategic tools for market penetration, system coordination, quality and safety assurance, brand complementing, and product niche definition.

    The issues of who is forming G&S, their privatization, motivations, and the impacts on various market participants and poor people must all inform the strategic responses to the changes in the roles and nature of G&S. The definition of their usefulness and value goes beyond the sometimes artificial distinctions between quality and safety to more current distinctions between process and characteristics. All of these distinctions are predicted to become more relevant than ever as industries and governments, even in the most developed countries, are faced with a new sort of food security issue. In terms of international trade, G&S is becoming the hot topic of political economics in much the same way that tariffs were in the 1990s, with profound implications for regional and international agreements, particularly in terms of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) and technical barriers to trade (TBT).

    To complement this understanding, a practical outline of the principles of G&S is offered along with step-by-step guidelines for establishing them. The document includes examples as well as ample resources for further information.

  22. 70 Engaging Civil Society to Create Sustainable Agricultural Systems: Environmentally-Friendly Coffee in El Salvador and Mexico.
    Daniele Giovannucci with Peter Brandriss, Esteban Brenes, Ina Marlene Ruthenberg, and Paola Agostini. (The World Bank, 1999)

    Abstract
    Farmers are interested in sustainability and markets are interested as well, so how do the two link? While supply chains are indeed developing to facilitate the necessary linkages, civil society organizations serve as a useful component to help ensure farmer adoption in the field and a measure of equity in the relationships between producers and market actors. This brief paper illustrates some of the key experiences in two of the first efforts to develop innovative market-oriented approaches toward environmental and social sustainability by applying such standards (Organic and Rainforest Alliance) in the coffee business.

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In an increasingly performance-oriented society, metrics matter. What we measure affects what we do. If we have the wrong metrics, we will strive for the wrong things. Nobel laureates Joseph Stiglitz, Amartya Sen, and Jean-Paul Fitoussi